Linux is an open-source, free operating system widely used for computer hardware and software, game development, tablet PCs, mainframes, and more. Unix It is an operating system commonly used on internet servers, workstations, and PCs Solaris, Intel, HP, etc.
Linux vs Unix comparison table
|current rating 4.12/5 (3326 ratings)||current rating is 3.99/5 (1360 ratings)|
|The cost||Linux can be freely redistributed, free to download, redistributed through magazines, books, etc. There are also paid versions for Linux, but these are usually cheaper than Windows.||Different flavors of Unix have different cost structures depending on the vendor.|
|Development and distribution||Linux is developed through open source development, that is, by sharing and collaborating on code and features through forums, etc., and distributed by various vendors.||Unix systems come in various other flavors, primarily developed by AT&T, as well as various commercial vendors and non-profit organizations.|
|Manufacturer||The Linux kernel is developed by the community. Linus Torvalds is watching everything.||The three largest distributions are Solaris (Oracle), AIX (IBM), and HP-UX Hewlett Packard. And Apple makes OSX, a UNIX based OS ..|
|User||All. From home users to developers and computer enthusiasts.||Unix operating systems were designed primarily for mainframes, servers, and workstations, with the exception of OSX, which is for everyone. The Unix environment and the client-server programming model have been important elements in the development of the Internet.|
|using||Linux can be installed on a wide variety of computer hardware, from mobile phones, tablets, and game consoles to mainframes and supercomputers.||The UNIX operating system is used in Internet servers, workstations, and PCs. The backbone of most financial structures and many 24×365 high availability solutions.|
|File system support||Ext2, Ext3, Ext4, Jfs, ReiserFS, Xfs, Btrfs, FAT, FAT32, NTFS||format jfs, gpfs, hfs, hfs+, ufs, xfs, zfs|
|Text mode interface||BASH (Bourne Again SHell) is the default Linux shell. It can support multiple command interpreters.||Originally Bourne Shell. It is now compatible with many others including BASH, Korn & C.|
|What is it?||Linux is an example of open-source software development and a free operating system (OS).||Unix is an operating system that is very popular in universities, companies, large enterprises, etc.|
|GUI||Linux usually provides two graphical interfaces: KDE and Gnome. But there are millions of alternatives like LXDE, Xfce, Unity, Mate, twm, etc.||Originally Unix was a command-based OS, but later a graphical interface was created called the Common Desktop Environment. Most distributions now ship with Gnome.|
|Price||Free, but price support is available.||Some are free to develop (Solaris), but support is affordable.|
|Safety||To date, about 60-100 viruses have been reported on Linux. None of these are currently being actively distributed.||A rough estimate of UNIX viruses is between 85 and 120 viruses recorded to date.|
|Detection and elimination of threats||In the case of Linux, threat detection and resolution is very fast since Linux is mostly community-driven and whenever any Linux user posts a threat, several developers start working on it from different parts of the world.||Due to the proprietary nature of the original Unix, users have to wait a bit to get a proper bug fix patch. But this is not so common.|
|Processors||Dozens of different types.||x86 / x64, Sparc, Power, Itanium, PA-RISC, PowerPC, and many more.|
|Examples of||Ubuntu, Fedora, Red Hat, Debian, Archlinux, Android etc.||OS X, Solaris, all Linux|
|Architecture||Originally designed for Intel x86 hardware, ports are available for over two dozen processor types, including ARM||available on PA-RISC and Itanium machines. Solaris is also available for x86 / x64 based systems. OSX is PowerPC (10.0-10.5) / x86 (10.4) / x64 (10.5-10.8)|
|Beginning||Inspired by MINIX (Unix-like system) and ultimately after adding many GUI features, drivers, etc., Linus Torvalds developed the OS framework that became LINUX in 1992. The LINUX kernel was released on September 17, 1991.||It was developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs and Dennis Ritchie. It was written in “C” and was designed as a portable, multi-tasking and multi-user system in a time-sharing configuration.|
History of Unix and Linux
In 1960, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, AT&T Bell Labs, and General Electric were working on an experimental operating system called the Multiplexed Information and Computing Service, or MULTICS. It was designed to run on the GE-645 mainframe. But it worked badly. AT&T Bell Labs scrapped this project and deployed its resources elsewhere. But Ken Thompson, one of the developers at Bell Labs, continued development for the GE-645 mainframe and wrote a game for that computer called Space Travel. But the game was too slow on a GE machine and expensive, costing $ 75 to run. So he rewrote the assembler game for the PDP-7 Digital Equipment Corporation with the help of Dennis Ritchie.
This experience, combined with his work on the Multics project, prompted Thompson to launch a new operating system for the PDP-7, and they developed the file system as well as the new multitasking operating system with the help of a small team. Developers. These included a command-line interpreter and several small utilities. In 1970 it was called UNICS and later converted to UNIX.
In 1985, Richard Stallman created the Free Software Foundation and developed the GNU General Public License (GNU GPL) for Free Software Distribution. Many of the programs required by the OS (such as libraries, compilers, text editors, the UNIX shell, and the windowing system) were completed by the early 1990s, but some elements, such as device drivers, daemons, and the kernel, were incomplete. In 1991, Linus Torvalds began work on MINIX, a Unix-like OS whose code was freely available under the GNU GPL project. He then developed the first LINUX kernel and released it on September 17, 1991, for Intel x86 computer systems. This kernel included various system utilities and libraries from the GNU Project to create a user-friendly operating system. All source code is free to modify and use.
Using Linux and Unix
Linux is great for small and medium-sized businesses, and today it is also used in large enterprises, where UNIX was previously considered the only option. Linux was considered an interesting academic project a few years ago, but in most large enterprises where networking and multiuser computing are the main concerns; people didn’t see Linux as an option. But today, with major software vendors porting their applications to Linux, and because it can be freely redistributed, this OS has become a popular option for web serving and office applications.
But there are some circumstances where UNIX is the obvious choice or has been used in the past. If the enterprise used massive symmetric multiprocessor systems or systems with more than eight processors, they had to run UNIX in the past. UNIX was much better at handling all processes than Linux. However, since 2004, more of the largest supercomputers in the world run Linux than Unix. Since 2011, Linux has been powered by over 90% of the top 500 servers. It also runs on the largest (as of 2011): RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science Cores: 705024 Power: 12659.89 kW Memory: 1410048 GB
Linux – Unix: Differences in Cost and Distribution
Linux is free to redistribute as it is an open-source OS. So anyone can get a copy of Linux from books, magazines, or the Internet. On the server-side, organizations typically pay distributors for a support contract, not software. The main distributors are RED HAT, Mandrake, and SUSE. For server hardware, the main ones are IBM, HP, Dell.
UNIX is more expensive than Linux; Midrange UNIX servers are priced between $ 25,000 and $ 249,999 (including hardware). The main distributors are HP, IBM, and SUN. A high-performance UNIX server can cost up to $ 500,000. According to IDC, Gartner, IBM is the leader in the UNIX server market, HP is in 2nd place, and the SUN is in 3rd.
Commercial UNIX is usually tailor-made for each system, which makes the initial cost quite high, while Linux also has basic packages. In this respect, Linux is closer to Windows in its model than the commercial UNIX operating system. When purchasing a UNIX server, users receive a plan of assistance from the vendor for system installation and configuration. But for Linux, vendor support must be purchased separately.
Threats and Security: Unix vs. Linux
Both operating systems are vulnerable to bugs, but Linux is much more responsive to threats. Linux includes many of the same characteristics and functions as UNIX, including user domain segmentation in a multiuser environment, task isolation in a multitasking environment, a password system that can be encrypted, and/or removed. and much more. Since Linux is an open system OS, bugs can be reported by anyone on the user/developer forum and can be fixed within a few days. But for UNIX this is not the case and the user needs to wait a bit to get the correct patch to fix the errors. The open-source community is faster because it doesn’t have to go through endless development cycles of commercial operating systems.
At the same time, as an open-source operating system, it is supported by tens of thousands of developers around the world. Again, this allows for better innovation and faster time-to-market of features than anything UNIX has to offer.
Linux and Unix market and future
According to International Data Corp. (IDC), Linux has grown faster than any other server OS in the past few years. The Linux user base is estimated at approximately 25 million machines, compared to 5.5 million for combined UNIX installations.
Linux is gaining popularity for its free and easily available use in embedded technologies. To compete with Linux, vendors such as HP, IBM, Sun are building custom UNIX with a graphical user interface and a friendly interface that is also compatible with Linux. Major UNIX vendors – IBM, Sun, and Hewlett-Packard – are already rolling out Linux interoperability in future releases of AIX, Solaris, and HP-UX.
Here’s an interesting video that introduces us to the history, differences, and some common commands used in Linux and Unix environments:
- Linux – Books and News
- Unix – Books and News